Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic used worldwide for anesthesia, pain management, treatment resistant depression (TRD) and suicidality. Predictors of antidepressant response and adverse effects to ketamine remain poorly understood due to contradictory results. The objective of the systematic review herein is to identify and evaluate the extant literature assessing pharmacogenomic predictors of ketamine clinical benefits and adverse effects. Electronic databases were searched from inception to July 2021 to identify relevant articles. Twelve articles involving 1,219 participants with TRD, 75 who underwent elective surgeries and received ketamine as an anesthetic, 49 with pain, and 68 healthy participants met the inclusion criteria and enrolled to this review. While identified articles reported mixed results, three predictors emerged: 1) Val66Met (rs6265) brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF; Met allele) was associated with reduced antidepressant and anti-suicidal effects, 2) CYP2B6*6 (e.g., CYB2B6 metabolizer) was associated with more severe dissociative effects and 3) NET allelic (rs28386840) variant were associated with greater cardiovascular complications (e.g., moderate to severe treatment emergent hypertension). Several important limitations were identified, most notably the small sample sizes and heterogeneity of study design and results. Taken together, preliminary evidence suggests the potential for pharmacogenomic testing to inform clinical practices; however, further research is needed to better determine genetic variants of greatest importance and the clinical validity of pharmacogenomics to help guide ketamine treatment planning.